Higher education HE has an important mission to generate new knowledge and prepare graduates for positions of leadership and responsibility in a rapidly changing and increasingly complex and competitive world. During the past three decades, higher education institutions in developing countries have witnessed a multifold increase in enrollments. Resources, both public and private, have not kept pace with escalating enrollments and costs. In many countries rising demand and enrollments, undifferentiated access policies, exclusive public funding, underutilization of professional staff, overly theoretical curricula, and inappropriate teaching methods have led to high unit costs, high dropout and repetition rates, low completion rates of graduates, and the production of graduates whose skills and specializations do not reflect those needed in the labor market. Notwithstanding the general crisis in the quality and efficiency of HE in the developing countries, the conditions of HE vary significantly across geographical regions, both between countries in a single region and among institutions in the same country.
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